Arduino computers are small dedicated computers for controlling hardware etc. Unlike the Raspberry Pi, they are not standalone computers - you need to download a program onto one and then they will happily run that program.
At present, all of the comments/notes below related to the Arduino Uno.
There are Chinese-made clones that are cheaper, but are not 100% compatible. For example, some of the Chinese clones use a different chip (CH2340G) to control the USB port; in order to communicate with this sort of clone, you will need to update/install a new driver.
Projects / Getting Started
1. Download the IDE from Arduino; install; make sure it can see the arduino. If you are using a genuine Arduino then things should work out of the box. If you have one of the clones, you may need special driver.
2. Test with BLINK program
File -> Examples -> 0.1 Basics -> Blink - Upload program to Arduino - onboard LED should blink on 1second then off 1second (forever) - change timing: delay(1000); to delay(500); - units are milliseconds, so 1000 is 1 second - upload
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